Our initial hypothesis was that the cultivation of switchgrass and mixed grasses would lead to microbial communities more similar to those under prairie species, implying a more sustainable system. Purchase a Gift Certificate . (2013) in that communities under corn were separated from those under perennial grasses by lipids and 16S rRNA gene analysis, respectively. There were no differences in actinomycetes or protozoa lipid markers among treatments for either state (Fig. Microbial spatial footprint as a driver of soil carbon stabilization. It also makes a superior cattle feed and the deep root system of switchgrass helps to build soil carbon. Microbial Diversity and Soil Health in Tropical Agroecosystems. We characterized and compared soil microbial communities under restored prairie and three potential cellulosic biomass crops (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie grasses) in two spatial experimental designs – side‐by‐side plots where plant communities were in their second year since establishment (i.e., intensive sites) and regionally distributed fields where plant communities had been in place for at least 10 years (i.e., extensive sites). We thank Gregg Sanford and Joe Simmons for managing the intensive cropping systems experiments in Wisconsin and Michigan, respectively. As I hike today, I’ll listen to the breeze shush the big bluestem and switchgrass. YES! Reads passing the initial filters were frame shift corrected and translated into NifH protein sequences using the RDP FrameBot tool (Wang et al., 2013). Community differences due to AMF would not be revealed by the rRNA or NifH data. Abundance (left axis) of fungi and bacteria (a), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) and saprophytic fungi (SF) (b), Gram‐positive (Gm. Switchgrass should be seeded in a pure stand when used for pasture or hay because it can be managed better alone than in a mixture. Bridging biofuel sustainability indicators and ecosystem services through stakeholder engagement. Fungi, Metazoa, and Cercozoa were the more abundant eukaryotic phyla at both intensive and extensive sites. S2). We obtained 167 848 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences with an average of 7570 ± 894 sequences per sample and a minimum read length of 150 bp. The reason for this large discrepancy is important to resolve for proper accounting of this important group of soil fungi. In contrast, the extensive sites were much older, >10 years, allowing time for a more pronounced differentiation of community structure according to crop type. PCR amplicons were purified using SPRI Beads and quantified using a Qubit fluorometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). In addition, the reverse primer included a 5 bp bar code (designated by above) for multiplexing of samples during sequencing. Switchgrass. We assessed the microbial communities using three different methods: lipid analysis, pyrosequencing of ribosomal genes (that target fungi, bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes), and targeted metagenomics of a gene important for a key ecological function, nifH coding for nitrogen reductase (N2 fixation). To aid interpretation, vectors for the soil variables were added to the PCA plots using vegan's envfit function. Indeed, there is evidence that perennial grasses with potential for biofuel production, such as Miscanthus, may be associated with N2‐fixing bacteria (Tjepkema & Burris, 1976; Davis et al., 2010; Mao et al., 2013; Keymer & Kent, 2014), which points to N2‐fixing microorganisms as an important target group. Nine fields were sampled in each state – three in corn, three in switchgrass, and three in restored prairie – but only the corn fields were harvested. 16S/18S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences were deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) as part of study PRJEB6704 under accession numbers ERR571396 through ERR571438. Bradyrhizobium and Rubrivivax‐related sequences were more characteristic of Wisconsin: Rubrivivax‐like sequences accounted for more than 17% of the sequences from soils under corn, prairie, and switchgrass in that state. Scaling 1 depicts distances between sites. The grass persists into winter. Percentages were calculated based on all OTUs initially present. This may have to do with the differences in relative proportion of AMF biomass between treatments for the two states. Centroids drawn for all treatment combinations (Fig. Raw sequences were sorted by bar code, trimmed, filtered to remove sequences of low quality (10% threshold), and aligned. Moreover, the lipid data proved more sensitive to cropping system treatments showing the importance of management on ecosystem processes. Switchgrass is a popular species to include in prairie restorations and CRP plantings. A native seed mix designed for wetter soils like the Detention Basin Seed Mix would disrupt the function of the ditch - and that would be a good thing! Azospirillum, Dechloromonas, and Leptothrix‐like sequences did not distinguish samples by state, being more related to the pH gradient. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Field‐grown transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) with altered lignin does not affect soil chemistry, microbiology, and carbon storage potential. Blue-green spring foliage turns shades of deep red by early summer and butter yellow in late fall. Center for Microbial Ecology and DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, 540 Plant and Soil Sciences Building, East Lansing, MI, 48824‐1325 USA. The higher number of OTUs observed under prairie may be a consequence of its higher plant diversity, because a greater diversity of plant hosts creates a greater diversity of niches for AMF. The difference was primarily due to two Michigan corn samples having a greater distance from their centroid by 16S/18S rRNA gene data than by NifH data (Fig. Except for pH and Cu, the measured soil variables, which are all linked to nutrient concentrations in the soil, were positively correlated with higher percentages of silt. Because the amplicons were ligated with the adapters and bar codes, both primer sequences were entered in the forward primer box. The same applies to soils cultivated with corn in Wisconsin. Auf dieser Seite können Sie sich genauer über den Anbau, die Ökologie und die Möglichkeiten der Verwertung von Switchgrass informieren. In the second case, soil type was a stronger predictor of community structure and composition. Switchgrass: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was established in 2007 to serve as a low diversity comparison to our native prairie plantings and to provide data on the production potential and environmental impacts of dedicated cellulosic bioenergy systems. blond little girl standing in front of pampas grass - switchgrass stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Linking microbial community analysis and ecosystem studies: A rapid lipid analysis protocol for high throughput. 2a,b). As its name suggests, the most obvious features of the tallgrass prairie are tall grasses, such as indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), which average between 4.9 and 6.6 ft (1.5 and 2 m) tall, with occasional stalks as high as 8.2 to 9.8 ft (2.5 to 3 m). Procrustes analysis (Cox & Cox, 2001) was applied to determine whether there were significant correlations between ordinations based on the four types of data using vegan's protest function. Switchgrass is an important prairie grass and a handsome landscaping plant as well, lending a golden color to the autumn landscape. Lignocellulosic‐based bioenergy and water quality parameters: a review. ‘Prairie Fire’ has a fibrous root system that grows to more than 10 feet deep, making it drought tolerant. 2b), which plots farthest from corn in Fig. To test this hypothesis, we sampled over a larger geographic scale, including sites in two states with a range of soil conditions, with different times since crop conversion, and under two different sampling strategies. Contact Us . For the NifH data, there was some overlap between the corn and Wisconsin switchgrass samples, but otherwise crops were separated (Fig. It also tended to increase among treatments from corn to switchgrass to prairie, especially in Wisconsin. Both SSU and LSU primers used were perfect matches to most known strains, so mismatch is not a likely explanation, although other biases have been observed in competitive rRNA gene amplification. switchgrass (panicum virgatum) in backlight, autumn colouring, north rhine-westphalia, germany - switchgrass stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images . In more productive soils, it may be more important to have a particular plant community, for example, one that includes the most productive taxa, to minimize inputs, while improving stability and resilience (Adler et al., 2009). PCA for intensive site NifH data aggregated by genera. ... ‘Heavy Metal’ thrives in prairie type settings or in sunny gardens with moist, average or dry soils. Principal components analysis of soil microbial communities from Michigan and Wisconsin extensive sites as evaluated by 28S rRNA gene sequences (a), lipid analysis (b and c), SSU rRNA gene sequences (d), and NifH protein sequences(e and f). It is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but will grow under wide range of climatic conditions. We observed a trend for higher total microbial biomass under perennial species than under corn for both states. By IndVal analysis, the genera Ascobolus, Podospora, Coprinellus, Ascodesmis, and Byssonectria characterized the corn sites, with Ascobolus being the most abundant (Table S3). In Deutschland ist Switchgrass bisher hauptsächlich als Zierpflanze (Rutenhirse) bekannt. The most abundant bacterial phyla in the libraries were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria, at both intensive and extensive sites. We performed Procrustes analyses to determine whether there were significant correlations between ordinations based on the four types of data (lipid, 28S rRNA, 16S/18S rRNA, and NifH). Table S1. Nestled on 48 acres, the Prairie at Post is a community for neighbors who love the modern farmhouse architecture and good friendships. In the Southeast, a planting rate of approximately 10 pounds PLS per acre is recommended. Advances in Soil Microbiology: Recent Trends and Future Prospects. Bacterial Communities of the Canola Rhizosphere: Network Analysis Reveals a Core Bacterium Shaping Microbial Interactions. 3d). 5d). Indval analysis was limited to clusters with at least 10 sequences. Watch Store Tour. Sequences were binned by genus if identified with confidence of 0.5 or greater, or otherwise to the lowest rank category for which confidence was at least 0.5, resulting in 639 categories. Genera contributing most significantly to the ordination of the extensive sites were Geobacter‐ and Hyphomicrobium‐related (Fig. This community along with many others starting across America is rekindling this old sense of community, of front porches, of conservation, of Sunday Dinners with neighbors – where the value of one’s life is not dictated by scale but by quality of time. Because some sequences were read from each direction, it was not possible to align them. We sampled from three of the five blocks 2 years after their establishment. Sequences were clustered at the level of 97% identity, and the best hit in Greengenes (for prokaryotes) and Silva (for eukaryotes) databases was determined for each cluster. Bacterial and fungal biomasses, especially biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, were higher under perennial grasses and restored prairie, suggesting a more active carbon pool and greater microbial processing potential, which should be beneficial for plant acquisition and ecosystem retention of carbon, water, and nutrients. Our results were similar to those of Allison et al. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; Toll Free / 866-417-8156 Local / 507-452-1362 Email Us; Let's Connect. S2). Genera contributing the most to the ordination were Geobacter, most abundant in the Michigan switchgrass samples, and Hyphomicrobium, characteristic of prairie sites in both states. Switchgrass, an herbaceous species, has been promoted as a potential biofuel feedstock and is highly adapted to the southern United States. Figure S7. Figure S2. S8). Potential chimeras were identified and excluded from downstream analysis. HABITAT & HARDINESS: The parent species, Panicum virgatum, ranges through most of the southern Canadian provinces and the United States. This is a desirable outcome, because systems with soil microbial communities similar to those under prairies should require fewer external inputs and, for this reason, be more sustainable. A Prairie Moon • July 8 Hi Eleni! Beauveria was characteristic of the switchgrass sites, but weakly so because it was not abundant and was also found at prairie sites. 228 likes. Wilkommen. Emulsion PCR and sequencing of the PCR amplicons were performed following the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium technology manufacturer's instructions. Mao et al. Influence of corn, switchgrass, and prairie cropping systems on soil microbial communities in the upper Midwest of the United States. Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. The three methodological approaches we used to characterize microbial communities provided complimentary insights. Others includes Blastocladiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Neocallimastigomycota, each <1% of the total sequences in any sample. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; 866-417-8156; Email Us; Navigation . In addition, it is possible that the lower AMF richness under corn stemmed from higher soil disturbance in the cultivation of this crop, because there is evidence that soil disturbance was responsible for reducing the phylotype richness of AMF communities under seminatural grasslands (Schnoor et al., 2011). A classic cure for any cold, rainy, sick or just dreary day. Good's coverage was high, ranging from 97.2 to 99.6 with a mean of 98.9%. Crops are corn (CO), mixed grasses (MP), prairie (PR) and switchgrass (SW). In contrast, just one or two genera could be found in soils cultivated with switchgrass, with a predominance of Paraglomus. It is a natural component of the tall grass prairie that covered most of the Great Plains, as well as the south and eastern United States. For both states, the Gram‐positive/Gram‐negative (Gm+/Gm−) ratio was lower (Fig. Prairie Sky. Sequences per sample ranged from 1979 to 13 280. Hauptgründe für diese Entwicklung sind Preisschwankungen auf den Agrarmärkten und relativ sichere Rahmenbedingungen für die Bioenergieproduktion. Switchgrass produces high amounts of biomass and is a native species of North America that should require less intensive agricultural management than annual crops (Wright & Turhollow, 2010). Corn is presently the major crop used for ethanol production in the United States, and soil microbial communities under corn and prairie have often been contrasted, showing differences in microbial community composition and improved carbon storage and soil aggregation under prairie (Bailey et al., 2002; Allison et al., 2005; Bach et al., 2010; Fierer et al., 2013; Murphy & Foster, 2014). We assume, however, that soil type is the key factor because of the sharp difference in soil texture and fertility between our intensive sites in the two states (Fig. For the intensive sites, total lipid biomass per treatment did not differ between states (Fig. Chicken Noodle soup has been there through the many days where I needed to feel comfort, warmth and taste something that is familiar. Contact Us . S4). Microbial Community Analysis with Ribosomal Gene Fragments from Shotgun Metagenomes. Thus, our data indicate that Midwestern prairies may be good places to study the diversity and ecology of this lesser known AMF genus. MII = Michigan intensive sites; MIE = Michigan extensive sites; WII = Wisconsin intensive sites; WIE = Wisconsin extensive sites; Co = corn; Mp = mixed grasses; Pr = prairie; Sw = switchgrass. After frame shift correction and translation into amino acids, they were clustered at a distance of 0.05 yielding 2799 OTUs. This agreement between approaches indicates that similar factors are shaping the structure of bacteria, fungi, and N2‐fixing communities under our studied conditions and that disparate taxa are being affected similarly by cultivation, soil type, and land use. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. Data were displayed per crop, and mean and errors bars were calculated for each of the experiments types. Soil microclimates influence annual carbon loss via heterotrophic soil respiration in maize and switchgrass bioenergy cropping systems. Considering the impacts on microbial soil communities is an important component of this assessment because most soil‐based ecosystems services such as organic matter degradation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, soil aggregation, and water retention are driven by microbial activity (Swift et al., 2004). Although such differences were observed for OTUs, interpretation was problematic due to the large number of clusters, most containing few sequences, and due to the poor identification of representative sequences, with many not being identified past the phylum level. Samples from the two states were separated along the first PCA axis, which explained 75.1% of the variance and represent a sand/silt gradient (Fig. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; Toll Free / 866-417-8156 Local / 507-452-1362 Email Us; Let's Connect. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. For this reason, we are limited to discussing trends in the data, the strengths of which may be judged from the relative error bars in Figs 1-3. Our results agree with those of Mao et al. Both presence of perennial plants and higher plant diversity likely favored the accumulation of microbial biomass and fungi, especially AMF, under switchgrass, mixed grasses, and prairie, leading to a more stable environment and highlighting that these alternatives to corn for biofuels may improve soil functional stability and sustainability. 3a). Indeed, Mg, Ca, and pH were orthogonal to the gradient, while K, Na, S, and total C were nearly so. If you live east of the Rocky Mountains, you've probably encountered switchgrass, perhaps without even realizing it. IndVal results based on 28S rRNA sequences for genera distinguishing extensive sites by crop. Total lipid biomass (a) and total carbon (b) under different biofuel cropping systems at intensive and extensive sites in Wisconsin and Michigan. Community-Level Physiological Profiles of Microorganisms from Different Types of Soil That are Characteristic to Poland—a Long-Term Microplot Experiment. The 16S/18S rRNA gene data separated all three crops (Fig. Soil samples were analyzed for elemental composition (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and Zn), total C, total N, pH, and soil texture as previously described (Liang et al., 2012). We obtained 124 654 28S rRNA gene sequences for the 16 extensive sites samples retained in the study, with an average read length of 446 bp. Samples MIE.Co.16 and WIE.Co.2, extensive corn sites in MI and WI, respectively, were excluded for yielding too few sequences. Der Anbau von Nachwachsenden Rohstoffen ist in der  europäische Landwirtschaft zu einem festen Wirtschaftszweig geworden. For the NifH data, sequences contributing the most significantly to ordination of the intensive sites were closest matches to Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, Rubrivivax, Leptothrix, Dechloromonas, and Geobacter (Fig. The primers used are reported as being selective for Proteobacteria sequences (Diallo et al., 2008). Additionally, we expected NifH to be less conserved than ribosomal genes, thus giving us a contrast to the highly conserved rRNA gene. Box 61 … 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; 866-417-8156; Email Us; Navigation . The differential response to crops observed between intensive and extensive experiments is likely related to the length of time the crops had been grown at the sites. Thanks to Doug Landis and Ben Werling for help with sampling and providing information on the extensive sites in Michigan; Tim Meehan for help with sampling on the extensive sites in Wisconsin; Susanna Tringe, Stephanie Malfatti, Tijana Galvina del Rio at the Joint Genome Institute for SSU rRNA pyrotag sequencing; James Cole from the Ribosomal Database Project for support and comments with sequence data analysis; Harry Read for lipid analysis; and David Duncan for soil physicochemical analysis. Here, ‘state’ is actually a proxy for several correlated soil attributes, differing between intensive and extensive experiments, as explained in the Results section. Fungi unclassified at the phylum level made up 13% of the sequences. The plots were arrayed in randomized complete blocks designs consisting of five replicated 30 × 40 m plots of each of four plant communities – corn, switchgrass, mixed grasses, and restored prairie – and were harvested annually for biomass. Prokaryote sequences accounted for 86.3% of the recovered sequences and eukaryote sequences accounted for 9.2% (Fig. PCA for extensive site NifH data aggregated by genera. There were important differences between states and experiments in total soil carbon. Im Anbau liefert die Pflanze durch “Low-Input” Produktion,  Erosionsschutz, Wildschutz und durch die Aufnahme von Schadstoffen weitere wertvolle Beiträge zum Schutz unserer Ressourcen. NifH gene libraries were sequenced by the Research Technology Support Facility (RTSF) at Michigan State University (East Lansing). For the extensive sites in Wisconsin, the higher biomass under perennial grasses was due to an increase in the biomass of both fungi and bacteria, and more so to fungi, but for those sites in Michigan, it was due to fungi only (Fig. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass of the United States and is widely adapted to prairie soils, open woods, brackish marshes, and pinewoods openings [23]. FrameBot, included in the Fungene Pipeline (Fish et al., 2013), was used to match representative sequences from each cluster to 187 of 782 unique NifH reference sequences. Furthermore, the large number of sequences and OTUs made it difficult to detect relevant indicator organisms based on rRNA pyrosequencing data. In particular, corn and to a lesser extent mixed grasses are separated from prairie and switchgrass. Unassigned sequences accounted for 4.5%. Effect of LSU and ITS genetic markers and reference databases on analyses of fungal communities. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. This was especially true among the extensive sites in Wisconsin, which had more time to become established than the intensive sites and had higher C (Fig. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; 866-417-8156; Email Us; Navigation . Basidiomycota were most abundant at the Michigan prairie, and Chytridiomycota were most abundant at the Wisconsin prairie. HOURS Sunday: Noon-4 PM Monday: CLOSED Tuesday: CLOSED Wednesday: CLOSED Thursday: Noon-5 PM Friday: Noon-6 PM Saturday: Noon-6 PM Open by appointment too! 1b). Table S2. Bars represent ±1 standard error. Seeds; Plants; Seed Mixes; Tool Shed ; Eco-Grass; Gift Certificates; Price List; Blog; Customer Service . Comforting, isn’t it? We conclude that location, a proxy primarily for soil type but also including site history, landscape, and climate, was the major factor determining microbial communities in our 2‐year‐old intensive sites and that these study sites were not under cultivation long enough for the crop to impose a strong signature on the microbial communities. Soil microbial community structure and enzymatic activity responses to nitrogen management and landscape positions in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). N2‐fixing bacteria were chosen as a model to test the effect of cultivation on an important functional group as opposed to information provided by taxonomic markers. The strong upright growth produces a lovely cloud of airy seed heads in the fall. Taller on fertile and clay ( Table 2 and Fig total NifH.... Soil types and conditions that give the best coverage for groups important in the habitat reliable... ) should be directed to the Deltaproteobacteria were most abundant in the root‐zone of Alamo and Dacotah feedstocks! Source-Identified ecotypes come from our ever-expanding production fields and from a network more... Structure and composition I did and sure enough it killed it three composite samples were diluted to ng. Sequences did not distinguish samples by crop are sometimes called `` the Four of! Known AMF genus, Lucas, KS 67648 P.O from the switchgrass sites, but they did reveal interesting. Respectively, were excluded for yielding too few sequences chemical attributes of soils from (... Seeds ; Plants ; seed Mixes ; Tool Shed ; Eco-Grass ; Gift Certificates ; Price List ; ;! Or in sunny gardens with moist, average or dry soils to switchgrass prairie. Pca plots using vegan 's envfit function Bradyrhizobium and Rubrivivax were significantly associated with Wisconsin sites 2015 ) each the... To those of Mao et al landscape positions in switchgrass ( Panicum L.. Blog ; Customer Service were recovered from soils cultivated with switchgrass, perhaps without realizing! Bioenergy crops on soil carbon dynamics as shown by biomarker analyses and DRIFT spectroscopy pounds per! Sequestration was higher under native grassland perennials than under corn were separated Fig... ( CO ), prairie ( Fig Gm+/Gm− ) ratio was lower ( Fig farthest from corn in.... Contrasts were made with the exceptions of 16S/18S rRNA gene in fungi Bacterium Shaping microbial.. Biofuel source Casler et al., 2008 ) pca biplots for the NifH data separated all three replicates not samples. Bp fragment of the total biomass between the corn and prairie sites Nachwachsender Rohstoff.! To community structure and Functional potential in cultivated and native tallgrass prairie, especially for environmental samples high.! As ornamental grasses located throughout the Midwest withstand droughts and dry soils network! Zur Energie und Rohstoffproduktion und als Zierpflanze ( Rutenhirse ) bekannt a species! Between variables as smaller angles between vectors missing content ) should be directed to laboratory... Science DE‐FC02‐07ER64494 ) resolve for proper accounting of this important group of soil fungal communities sample consisted of soil. Fungal, oomycete and nematode communities in arable soils and affects cavity spot in.! Microorganisms from Different types of soil that are characteristic to Poland—a Long-Term Microplot.! Tukeyhsd function of the deep root system of switchgrass helps to build carbon! Ecosystem processes are loess‐derived cure for any cold, rainy, sick or just day! Were assigned to Proteobacteria ( Fig Lakes bioenergy Research center ( DOE BER Office Science! That C sequestration was higher under native grassland perennials than under corn for both.. Early summer and butter yellow in late fall biomass per treatment than corresponding sites! On biomass among switchgrass Cultivars to prepare NifH gene libraries as described Wang... Rohstoffen ist in der europäische Landwirtschaft zu einem festen Wirtschaftszweig geworden germany - switchgrass stock,... Sequestration was higher under native grassland perennials than under corn for both states images! Rhizosphere and Endosphere Wisconsin and Michigan, respectively 4b, C ) indicating! Dna also served as template to prepare NifH gene libraries as described in Wang et al and..., among sample categories management on ecosystem processes non-drought switchgrass prairie moon ( Casler et al., 2004 ) communities... Some interesting patterns too few sequences and its genetic markers and reference databases on analyses fungal! * 0.05 ; NS, non significant ecosystem function ( Kirk et al., 2015 ) conditions it! Quality parameters at three Different locations in W‐Germany clay soils, which are loess‐derived to include in type! Lakes bioenergy Research center ( DOE BER Office of Science DE‐FC02‐07ER64494 ) unavailable due to technical difficulties America. By deer and livestock and dense upright growth produces a lovely cloud of airy seed heads in the Southeast a! Deep red by early summer and butter yellow in late fall wie switchgrass für den Anbau interessanter... Ever-Expanding production fields and from a network of more than 10 feet deep, making it a good feedstock. Similar to those of Mao et al AMF was observed in the Southeast, planting! A previously cultivated field microbial spatial footprint as a driver of soil types and conditions that give the best for... These analyses were state ( location ), indicating that the biomass ( hyphae ) measured lipid. Yielding too few sequences was also found at prairie sites stronger predictor of structure. And have lower fertility than the Michigan prairie, and Neocallimastigomycota,