Instituto de Hidraulica Ambiental, ETSI de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain, Affiliation Featuring Santa & Mrs. Claus, Black Santa, multiple languages, and options for Special Needs and Faith-Based visits. Sign up for the weekly WRI Digest. habitat. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Impacts of Deep Horizon 2010 oil spill cost 62 billion USD to British Petroleum (USA Today, 2016), and the cost of oil spills following shipwreck of oil tankers, such as the Prestige at the Spanish and Portuguese coasts in 2002, were estimated in billion dollars (Loureiro et al. Only a few studies–all in marshes, provide information on vegetation heights. The averages were considered to be statistically significant if their 95% confidence intervals do not overlap zero (S5 Fig). While coral reefs are also very similar to breakwaters in structure and wave reduction function, we do not find enough information on reef restoration projects for a direct cost comparison. History . Coastal Planning and Engineering, CH2M HILL / University of Southampton, Swindon, United Kingdom, Affiliation In this paper, natural defences refer to existing coastal habitats within which wave reduction has been measured. The authors are very grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped strengthen this paper. This interlinked relationship means that local communities are often environmental stewards, using their traditional and local knowledge to increase their resilience and help them manage crises. We can instead see and value the environment as a series of assets or benefits that development in fact depends upon. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. At the same time, growing human and environmental pressures in coastal areas have significant impacts on coastal systems, requiring urgent attention in many coastal areas globally. In brief, this guidance note finds the following: • Mangroves and coral reefs provide significant coastal protection benefits. These losses reduce coastal resilience, as well as our ability to recover and adapt to climate change and other human-caused threats. Coastal management Hard engineering management involves using artificial structures, whereas soft engineering management is a more sustainable and natural approach to manage coastal erosion. On average, coastal habitats reduce wave heights between 35% and 71%. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Ultimately, sustainable development is everyone’s As with any hard engineering structure, information on nature-based defence project failures–i.e. 2004 ), the costs of reducing coastal risks are mainly supported by national or regional budgets in the North Sea countries and almost never by … Citation: Narayan S, Beck MW, Reguero BG, Losada IJ, van Wesenbeeck B, Pontee N, et al. The averages are considered significant (p<0.05) when the error bars do not overlap zero (see S1 Methods). Wrote the paper: SN MWB IJL BvW BGR NP JCI GML JNS KBC. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustainable development. But critical questions remain about when these projects can be used effectively for coastal protection, for example about the costs of a habitat restoration project relative to other, more conventional alternatives. On the other hand, the net-benefits of adaptation are put at up to €4.2 billion. Ideally, in future, more demonstration and reference sites would be available at multiple scales, to be able to compare the costs and effectiveness of nature-based defences versus artificial structures . No, Is the Subject Area "Marshes" applicable to this article? This paper integrates analyses of (a) natural defences with information from (b) nature-based defence projects, to address these gaps and improve understanding of how and where coastal habitats may be viable for coastal protection. Coastal areas are at risk as rising populations and growing urbanization prompt significant losses and damages to coastal habitats, impacting coastal and climate resilience. Development along the coast is particularly vulnerable to hurricanes, nor’easters, and other kinds of severe weather. In their re-analyses of field data, Pinsky et al.,  show high variability in wave reduction between habitats and investigate the influence of biophysical parameters on this variability–namely, the local flow conditions (Reynold’s number) and the resistance to flow provided by the habitat (the bulk drag coefficient). Coastal development causes loss of semi-natural and natural land, destruction and fragmentation of coastal habitats, and is also related to increased erosion levels and increased discharge of diffuse pollution and marine litter to the marine environment. Wave heights within deeper vegetated habitats such as seagrass beds are also affected by changes in bathymetry . Wave height is the response variable for the meta-analyses, following a number of the reviewed studies that report reductions in terms of wave heights. also see ). Also, these nature-based defences are limited to wave heights less than half a metre and are not always cost effective. To successfully implement long-term ocean and coastal management plans, it is critical governments involve these communities in decision-making processes by: Diverting water before it gets to coastal areas can compromise the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. 1.2 Purpose of the Report Coastal habitats such as mangroves and reefs can reduce wave heights by between 35% to 71% and can provide annual storm and flood protection benefits exceeding $65 billion for mangroves and $4 billion for reefs. The improvements in 2007 cost over £4 million for a relatively short section of wall. There is also a strong positive, linear correlation between the extent of reductions in wave height, and the wave height before the habitat, in the order coral reefs > salt-marshes ~ mangroves > seagrass / kelp beds (see S1 Fig). The cross-shore width of habitat and the degree of wave height reduction are also indicated for each project. economic and social development. There are affordable, feasible solutions to the threats that coastal ecosystems face that will enhance the resilience of coastal ecosystems, restore coastal integrity and empower a just economic recovery. The meta-analyses of wave heights however show that wave height measurements in mangroves have so far been limited to lower waves than in salt-marshes (Table 1, S1 Table). (2005) and US Army Corps of Engineers (2015b). But when we consider the environment in terms of ecosystem services, that mindset can change. However, clear differentiation of measured parameters–i.e. Coastal wetlands include estuaries, deltas and tidal flats mangroves and coastal marine areas as well as coral reefs. From the fifty-two projects, a subset was identified that also reported observed and estimated coastal protection benefits of various types. This can hinder decision-making with regard to future investments in restoration projects for coastal protection. on the coastal protection and risk reduction costs and benefits of projects involving restoration and management of coastal habitats. Mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds are not discussed due to the lack of comparable data on design parameters for these habitats. The addition of these benefits, over and above their coastal protection value should make these natural approaches more appealing to coastal managers and decision-makers . The restoration project data are a mix of primary–i.e. ... conservation and sustainable use of the environment. in wetland habitats like mangroves, marshes or seagrass beds). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735, Editor: Maura (Gee) Geraldine Chapman, University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA, Received: January 11, 2016; Accepted: April 18, 2016; Published: May 2, 2016. These results provide insights on where and how coastal habitats and nature-based defence projects may be viable and cost effective, and also, on the key parameters that should be assessed when designing these projects. It is worth emphasising that the measurements of waves in the analysed studies are all under ‘normal’ conditions of low waves. To provide a direct comparison of restoration projects with engineering alternatives, the costs of restoration projects were compared to the costs of structures that would achieve the same wave reduction.  The development of a viable integrated coastal management plan will take some time. PLoS ONE 11(5):  We use economic and social science research to evaluate the benefits and costs of different management actions, to prioritize management needs, and to create policy design that maximizes societal benefits from ocean and coastal resources in a sustainable way. In this and upcoming articles, we’ll examine renewable energy options and make a cost-benefit analysis of our economy from the present through 2050. While accurate estimates of construction costs require detailed information on structure profile, material and labour costs, etc., water depth is often a critical driver of construction costs  and therefore the main influence on cost effectiveness. wave reduction, as well as location–i.e. Coastal development impacts may be direct (e.g., land filling, dredging, coral and sand mining for construction) or indirect (e.g., increased runoff of sediment and pollutants). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.g002. The Goal has ten targets to be achieved by 2030. The sustainable development of coastal areas As a country with three major rivers flowing through it and with 523 kilometres of coastline, the Netherlands is a frontrunner in coastal management. The paper also synthesises information on the benefits of restoration projects for coastal protection. Though seawalls are a common substitute for mangrove and marsh habitats [20,31], these are often located at the shoreline and, in addition to blocking waves, also protect against flooding from high water levels. Humans derive many tangible and intangible benefits from coastal areas, providing essential components for social and economic development especially of less developed coastal states and island states. This alters the natural supply of sediment to the coast, leading to shoreline erosion and coastal vegetation loss. reports, assessments, surveys, etc.) These analyses and syntheses demonstrate the following: a) coastal habitats–particularly coral reefs and salt-marshes–have significant potential for reducing wave heights and providing protection at the shoreline; b) restoration projects for which data are available–i.e., mangrove and marsh projects–can be cost-effective relative to submerged breakwaters in attenuating low waves and become more cost-effective at higher water depths; c) a number of nature-based defence projects, especially in mangroves and marshes, have been observed to offer protection during storms. To meet development demands from growing population needs around the world, infrastructure investments are expected to dramatically increase globally in the next 20 years. These are increasingly driven by global conventions and their funding mechanisms, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the green Adaptation Fund (AF), as well as the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and lending from the World Bank. In the Asia-Pacific region, the Developing Member Countries of the Asian Development Bank will need to invest an estimated $26 trillion in infrastructure from 2016-2030 or $1.7 trillion per year to maintain growth momentum, eradicate poverty and respond to climate change mitigation and adaptation needs. The breakwaters were assumed to be constructing using rock or rubble-mound, as this is the most commonly employed material world-wide. We think it’s a cost. This is especially true for coastal zones where most people live and have businesses. 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